Tuesday, March 28, 2017
Thursday, March 16, 2017
By its nature, scientific research is not readily accessible and can be difficult to understand. Additionally, media headlines and articles on recent scientific research, regardless of the strength of the scientific study, generate significant "hype" and have direct influence on Americans' perceptions, beliefs, and behaviors about food and health. In response to the current scientific research reporting environment, IFIC Foundation has taken on new initiatives to promote scientific research regarding food and nutrition in a manner that is clear and objective. This session will highlight a new, dynamic tool that objectively scores and aggregates scientific research in the areas of food safety, agriculture, and nutrition. In this session, attendees will learn the ins and outs of this tool and how to use this tool in communicating with their patients and clients to help clear confusion and promote scientific accuracy and balanced discussion.
Learn more about the symposium here.
Learn more about the symposium here.
Monday, March 6, 2017
Well-balanced nutrition can give you a competitive advantage when it comes to working out and sports. Eating well will give you the proper fuel to help you power through your workout and help you feel your best. It is important to remember that nutrition is not one size fits all and that recommendations will vary based on activity level, sport played, length of activity, weight, and age. Well-planned diets for the recreational athlete and the elite athlete consist of a balance of carbohydrates and protein. Although with sports nutrition the focus is on carbohydrates and protein, it is important not to forget fat. People often fear fat because they think fat will make them fat. Keep reading to learn why we need carbohydrates, protein and fat.
- Carbohydrates are an important source of fuel and energy for our bodies.
- When we eat carbohydrates, our bodies store the glucose we are not currently using. As our blood sugar levels fall, the glycogen releases more glucose into our blood to keep our energy levels up.
- Not getting enough carbohydrates (or calories) while training can cause muscle glycogen levels to decrease and as a result performance will suffer.
- Sources of carbohydrates to try include whole grain bread, brown rice, faro, quinoa, bananas, raisins, peaches, apples, sweet potatoes, squash, corn, potatoes, oatmeal, cereal, chocolate milk, sports drinks, beans, pasta, and crackers.
- Protein is necessary to support muscle growth and recovery. Muscle is constantly being broken down during exercise, and adequate protein is important for repair.
- Choose lean proteins. Ideas include lean chicken, fish, roasted turkey, lean beef, eggs, low fat dairy, nuts, seeds, nut butters, beans, lentils, tofu, and Greek yogurt.
- Fat serves many functions in our bodies, which is why it is an important nutrient to include in our diets.
- Fat is necessary to:
- Absorb the fat-soluble vitamins (Vitamins A, D, E, K)
- Lubricate our joints and build healthy cells
- Give us energy and keep us feeling satisfied
- Not all fats are the same. Avoid trans fats found in packaged foods and baked goods, and limit saturated fat found in fatty red meats, fried foods and full fat dairy.
- Choose healthy fats (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats) including nuts, seeds, nut butters, avocados, extra virgin olive oil, coconut oil, and salmon.
My favorite pre exercise fuel is whole grain Cinnamon Raisin English Muffins with almond butter and a sliced banana. What is your favorite way to fuel for exercise?
Linzy Ziegelbaum, MS, RD, CDN has a private practice LNZ Nutrition, LLC (LNZnutrition.com) in New York where she counsels on sports nutrition, food allergies and weight management. She enjoys helping others navigate the science to understand the contradicting information about nutrition through her counseling and writing.
Facebook page: LNZnutrition https://www.facebook.com/
Instagram: LNZnutrition https://www.instagram.com/
Thursday, March 2, 2017
Athletes and recreational gym heroes are always looking for the next edge to dominate competition or personal records. Recently, a new trend of training like a villain has emerged. Specifically, suiting up like Bane from The Dark Knight Rises with an altitude training mask. However, there has been no clear evidence to support their use, despite investigations in cardiovascular training and resistance training.4,5,9,10 There seems to be no statistical significance or magnitude of improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2 Max), pulmonary function, or hematological variables. Little evidence suggests improved ventilatory thresholds and respiratory compensation thresholds, which is something at least.4 In resistance training activities, there are indications masks will reduce the total volume of training and increase perceived exertion acutely.10 Chronically, this reduction in mechanical stimuli could diminish an overload response or hypertrophic response over time.10 All of which equates to negative or no gains, which no one wants.
If they function, they function as respiratory muscle training devices.4 Furthermore, the specific mechanism of low bodily concentrations of oxygen exhibited in using the masks has been hypothesized to occur due to rebreathing carbon dioxide that accumulates in the mask.5 The benefits of using this specific mechanism in training are not clear, but from previous studies, there is limited significance in the usefulness of elevations masks oppose to a properly periodized training regimens.
When real altitude training is performed, individuals are exposed to hypobaric and hypoxic environments. Different training methods exist such as live low, train high (LLTH), live high, train high (LHTH), and live high, train low (LHTL) models. Therefore, to stimulate physiological adaptations: increased oxygen-carrying capacity via greater erythropoietic response (increased hemoglobin mass) and muscle buffering capacity via intramuscular carnosine levels.1,6 So far, research has suggested LHTL training has enhanced physiological adaptations on performance.7 However, before committing to this training regimen, further considerations should be implemented.
Variability responses among participants in studies have suggested individuals are either “responders” or “non-responders” to adaptations of altitude training.2 When investigating year-to-year changes in hemoglobin mass, Mclean and colleagues (2013) yielded similar increases in the altitude (2,100 m) groups response in increased hemoglobin mass. Except, individual athletes within the group did not exhibit changes from year-to-year. This suggests, there is no “responders” or “non-responders” grouping, but monitoring individual’s incidences of illness and body mass may be more advantageous.2
Incidences of illness, such as infections may promote the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1. The importance of this cytokine is that as this increases, there is a decrease in erythropoietic response.1 Furthermore, a decrease in body mass may also blunt erythropoietic responses due to the mismatch between energy intake and energy expenditure, creating an overall catabolic environment.2
Moreover, for altitude training to be effective, the key factor may be proper nutritional strategies.3 As exposures to higher altitudes promote increased respiratory rates, urinary losses, the rate of perceived exertion, and decreased muscle protein synthesis enzymatic activity and appetite.1,2,3 Proper hydration is vital as men may lose up to 1900 mL and women 850 mL of water per day at moderate altitudes, as well as urinary losses up to 500 mL per day.3 Therefore, careful monitoring of hydration status should take place. Carbohydrates in the diet should be approximately 60% and may need to increase from 7-10 g/kg/day to 12 g/kg/day to compensate for training.
Praz and colleagues (2015) monitored nutritional behaviors of amateur ski-mountaineering athletes prior to competition. Their investigation revealed the athletes did not comply with pre-race carbohydrate, energy, and fluid intakes. Further suggesting, athletes need to be better informed about nutrition and how energy intake and energy expenditure can affect performance.8 However, precise guidelines are difficult due to varying altitudes (2000-3500 m) effect on physiology during training and recovery.3
Therefore, careful planning of training and nutritional periodization may be ideal if altitude training is of interest to an athlete or coach. If altitude training is a potential interest, consulting someone such as a Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) may be beneficial to assess individual needs for an exercise program. Also, consulting a Registered Dietitian Nutritionist (RDN) would be equally beneficial to address dietary needs during training.
- McLean B, Buttifant D, Gore C, White K, Liess C, & Kemp J. (2013). Physiological and Performance Responses to a Preseason Altitude-Training Camp in Elite Team-Sports. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 8(4) 391-399.
- McLean B, Buttifant D, Gore C, White K, & Kemp J. (2013). Year-to-year variability in hemoglobin mass response to two altitude training camps. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 47, i51-i58.
- Michalczyk M, Czuba M, Zydek G, Zajac A, & Langfort J. (2016). Dietary Recommendations for Cyclists During Altitude Training. Nutrients, 8(6), 377; doi:10.3390/nu8060377
- Porcari J, Probst L, Forrester K, Doberstein S, Foster C, Cress M, & Schmidt K. (2016). Effect of Wearing the Elevation Training Mask on Aerobic Capacity, Lung Function, and Hematological Variables. Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 15, 379-386.
- Granados J, Jansen L, Harton H, Gillum T, Christmas K, & Kuennen M. (2014). “Elevation Training Mask” Induces Hypoxemia but Utilizes A Novel Feedback Signaling Mechanism. International Journal of Exercise: Conference Proceedings, 2(6), 26.
- Mizuno M, Juel C, Bro-Rasmussen T, et al. (1990). Limb skeletal muscle adaptation in athletes after training at altitude. Applied Physiology, 68(2), 496-502.
- Ness J. (2015). Is live high/train low the ultimate endurance training model. NSCA Coach, 2(1), 20-24.
- Praz C, Granges M, Burtin C, & Kayser B. (2015). Nutritional behavior and beliefs of ski-mountaineers: a semi-quantitative and qualitative study. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12(46); DOI: 10.1186/s12970-015-0108-5
- Maspero M & Smith J. (2016). Effect of an acute bout of exercise using an altitude training mask simulating 12,000 ft on physiological and perceptual variables. International Journal of Exercise Science: Conference Proceedings, 2(8), Article 90.
Dan Prenatt studied Exercise Science at Slippery Rock University. During this time, he discovered his passion for exercise and nutrition and their effects on human performance by training individuals at the campus recreation center. Solidifying his knowledge by obtaining credentials such as the Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) from the National Strength and Conditioning Association and Certified Exercise Physiologist (EP-C) from the American College of Sports Medicine. Currently, he is a graduate student at Ohio University studying Nutrition where he serves as a teaching assistant with plans to obtain the RDN credential. Ultimately, Dan aspires to obtain the Certified Specialist in Sports Dietetics (CSSD) credential to further enhance his passion, knowledge, and experiences into helping clients achieve their goals and maintain an active, healthy lifestyle.