To follow up on last months, introduction to nutrition and body building, here is the second half, enjoy!
We left off with appropriate ratios for carbohydrates, protein, and fat (50-60%, 25-30%, and 20% respectively). Fat levels are kept to 20% as “a high-fat diet appears to impair high intensity exercise capacity relative to a high-carbohydrate diet” (Lambert, Frank, and Evans 317-327).
A study in the journal of Sports Medicine, showed that a diet low in saturated animal fat and refined foods/carbohydrates had a 20% decrease in the testosterone level. This is insufficient research to indicate if saturated fat increases testosterone/muscle mass, more research needs done in this area. A Journal of Applied Physiology indicated that an increase in testosterone is related to an increase in muscle mass by increasing protein synthesis.
Post-Workout nutrition and meals are a crucial component to building muscle. The goal is to keep the body in an anabolic state where the body is synthesizing protein vs. a catabolic state where protein is being used as energy. This explains why it is difficult to lose fat mass and build muscle simultaneously, during the weight loss phase of a diet/exercise program an individual can expect to lose fat and muscle as muscle is used over fat as energy when inadequate calories are consumed. Going back to post workout meal consumption, Esmarck et al. reported that the consumption of 10 g protein, 7 g carbohydrates, and 3 g of fat (roughly the equivalent of 10 oz of 1% milk) increased muscle mass post workout immediately. “When this same supplement was ingested 2 hours after resistance exercise in a separate group of individuals, no increase in muscle mass was observed” (Lambert, Frank, and Evans 317-327).
Esmarck B, Andersen JL, Olsen S, et al. Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans. Journal of Physiology 2001; 535 (Pt ): 31-11)
Rennie MJ, Tipton KD. Protein and amino acid metabolism repletion after high-intensity intermittent exercise during and after exercise and the effects of nutrition. Annual Review Physiology 1977; 42: 129-32, Nutrition 2000; 20: 457-83.